Posts Tagged ‘boiler’

Radiant Slab Heating – Insulating Under the Slab

Thursday, February 23rd, 2012

Radiant Heating

In-Slab Systems

Radiant Heating has come to be known as perhaps the most comfortable type of heating available today (next to laying in the sun at least).  In-slab heating is a common option to consider for basements, slab floors, and garages.  While building codes do not necessarily call for it, there is no question that  insulation under the slab will positively impact the performance of any in-slab radiant heating system.  Here is what every contractor should know about insulation and in-slab heating.

Insulating Under the Slab

As was noted in our piece Radiant Heating:  In Slab Systems – What You Need to Know About In-Slab Systems, the first thing to keep in mind is “when heating a slab floor, the goal is to efficiently heat the slab and direct as much of that heat as possible into the living/working space above it – practically speaking  6-8 foot air space above the slab floor.”

The use of an insulation barrier under the  slab is a critical component that will result in much greater efficiencies for the heating system.

Without an insulating barrier, the slab will likely be resting on a bed of sand and/or gravel.  Even though sand is not considered to be a good thermal conductor, it is also not a good insulator.  It will allow heat to escape in a direction that is not in our target area – the 6-8 foot air space above the slab floor.

Insulation options: There are a few different options to provide an insulation barrier for a slab installation.  Three of them are discussed here.

Rigid foam sheets:  If the ground is leveled off well, a 1’ thick layer of blue foam is sometimes used as an insulation layer.  The cost of material is relatively inexpensive.  Because it is typically made of closed cell foam, this can also effectively serve as a vapor barrier, but would need to be taped or sealed somehow where pieces butt together in order not to compromise this functionality.  If working outdoors, care must be taken to hold the pieces in place prior to pouring the slab.  Pieces can be crushed or broken while being walked upon during the installation phase as well, sacrificing performance.  Lastly, while a 1” thick layer of foam will typically provide an R-5 insulation value, the foam itself will still allow some heat from radiant tubing in the slab to pass through it into the ground (i.e. – someplace other than our target area).

Spray foam:  This method has many risks with it.  The foam itself should be closed-cell foam.  If it is not closed cell, it will likely lose its insulation value over time.  Spray foam has no inherent vapor barrier capability.  This would need to be added perhaps through a plastic layer both below and above the foam.  Perhaps the most difficult aspect of using spray foam is the ability to maintain a consistent thickness and density prior to pouring.  For all of the above reasons, using spray foam as an insulation barrier under a slab is strongly discouraged.

Insulating Tarp or blanket:  An insulating tarp provides a built in vapor barrier above and below an insulating InsulTarp6layer of air (much like the bubble-pack used for shipping in packages).  The upper layer of the tarp also serves as a reflective layer to help to maximize the amount of heat being directed to the target area above the floor.  Insulating tarp is easy to work with.  It can simply be unrolled over the desired area.  It can be easily cut and taped down to adjacent pieces in only a few minutes.  It can be walked on by installers without worry to integrity or performance of the product.  It does not take up as much thickness as a rigid foam sheet and best of all, it provides superior insulation performance (typically in the R-6 to R-7 range).

Summary

While the per square foot cost of the insulating tarp may be more than that of rigid foam, it’s benefits during installation (quicker and easier) and its superior insulating performance and contribution to toward the increased efficiency of the radiant heating system provides a quick payback for both the installer and the homeowner.  Going back to the goal of our in-slab system – to efficiently heat the slab (and not the earth below it) and maximize the amount of heat being directed into the air space 6-8 feet directly above the slab – it is easy to see that the use of an insulating tarp makes sense in any in-slab radiant heating system.

Climate Control Systems – Thermostats or Computer-based Management System

Thursday, February 23rd, 2012

Indoor Climate Control

When to use Thermostats vs a software-based Management System

It is easy to know that a simple 1 or 2 zone system can be well-controlled using traditional wall-mounted thermostats at strategic locations within a home or building.  However, when the number of zones increases and/or the amount of equipment that needs to be managed within a system begins to require an advanced degree in science, it may be time to consider a more comprehensive solution.

Automated Climate Control systems are not new.  Indeed, they have been around for many years, but for the average homeowner or small business, they may have been out-of-reach from a cost standpoint.  New technology and new software are changing that scenario.

Before considering the software based management solution, we must first consider what the customer – the end-user – is looking for in the way of control for their HVAC system.

Simplicity – Thermostat systems are easy to use.  The input is a desired temperature, the outcome is hopefully the same.  Not a lot of thought required by the end-user.  A software-based system needs to be straight forward in asking for inputs and desired outcomes from the end-user.  Menus should be simple (e.g. – point & click).ecotstatscreen

Minimal Intervention – At its most basic level, a thermostat can be set and then ignored.  However, each time a different temperature level is required, it requires interaction by the end-user.  Ideally, a software-based system does not require repeated inputs by an end-user.  It should always have enough information to control the system and produce the appropriate comfort level.

Access to information (and reassurance) – People want to be comfortable with the idea that their equipment and systems are working as they are expected.  They want to be able to access information from anywhere at anytime.  At the same time, they don’t want just anyone to be able to do this, so security is just as important.

Easy Troubleshooting – When both mechanical and electronic components are in the mix (not to mention the human element), there are bound to be problems.  People want to be able to identify the source of their problem as quickly as possible so they can determine appropriate action.

Easy Service – Once a problem has been identified, people want to be able to identify and engage the best resource to solve the problem as quickly as possible.  As systems get more complicated, the need to assist the end-user in this process becomes more important.

What is a dealer looking for in the same system:

Simplicity – The system must be easy to explain to the customer.  The product itself must demonstrate that it will handle their complicated equipment while not requiring them to become experts in the technology.

Easy to design and install – The contractor wants to be able to provide a system cost and then come in on time and on-budget without requiring expensive or specialized on-site resources.  In addition, the system should use products that are non-proprietary, readily available, and are easy to maintain, repair, or replace.

Access to information (for easy troubleshooting) – The contractor wants to be able to access the system so they can quickly determine what resources will be required and when.  Ideally, the dealer will get this information at the same time or even before the customer does.

Long-term relationship with the customer – A system that contacts the contractor for service provides an excellent  opportunity for a high-value customer relationship that includes an assured revenue stream over a long-term period and an opportunity for customer referrals.

WHEN IS IT APPROPRIATE TO CONSIDER A CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEM OVER A SIMPLE THERMOSTAT CONTROL?

The more complicated the system, the easier it is to justify the additional expense of a true climate control system.  The presence of multiple zones, multiple heat sources, multiple methods of heat distribution – e.g., radiant and forced air, or simply a variety of other system elements (snow melt system, heat recovery ventilators, etc.) will point toward a more comprehensive solution.  The point is to keep the control simple and easy for the end-user.  While there are new thermostat products and even smart-phone apps out there that can bring system controls right into the hands of the end-user, the fact is that most of these are not self-managing systems and do not really provide the maximum value to either the end user or the contractor.  A climate control system that ties all the inputs and controls together and is flexible enough to handle all types of heating systems including a mix of forced air and radiant floor systems is the optimal solution.

ECÔ – THE CLIMATE CONTROL AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THAT BRINGS IT ALL TOGETHER.

For the Contractor – Simply define the inputs (zones, temperature, humidity, power-monitoring points) and equipment (furnaces, heat pumps, boilers, air handlers, HRV’s, ERV’s, etc.) to be controlled while planning the rest of the HVAC system and obtaining a cost estimate for the system is easy.  Better yet, rough-in work is just as easy with all wiring coming back to a single point (typically the mechanical area).  The system ships already partially configured.  All that is left is for the desired outcomes (e.g. – zone temps based on time, day, season, event, etc.) to be set up through the easy to use menus.

Once the system is up and running, it allows for the dealer/service provider to automatically be notified (via e-mail or text) of any problems with the system.  What value will an end-user apply to the dealer that proactively calls them to discuss a potential problem with their HVAC system?  What value will the dealer apply to a product that allows them to access and view the system through a web-based connection to potentially troubleshoot the problem without having to roll a truck?

For the customer – once the initial work with the contractor and the system is set up, they will have full ability to monitor their system.  While they will have the ability to make adjustments to their system, they should rarely need to do so.  By prearranging a service agreement with their dealer, they will have the confidence and the comfort of knowing that through automatic system notification that any problems will be addressed quickly and cost effectively.

Summary

The contractor should not be afraid to discuss automated climate control systems with their customer.  Trying to manage multiple zone systems using traditional thermostats may sound simple at first, but the practical day-to-day management of this approach may prove to be frustrating as well as tedious, resulting in an unhappy consumer.  Technology is meant to simplify our lives.  It doesn’t get much simpler than a climate control system that proactively monitors the weather forecast, knows both your work and vacation schedule, sets the climate accordingly without any intervention at all.

Heat Transfer Plates for Radiant Heating Applications

Monday, January 9th, 2012

What You Need to Know About Heat Transfer Plates

The first thing to understand about heat transfer plates is their purpose as a critical part of a radiant heating system.  It is easy to say, “It’s obvious.  They transfer heat from the hot water in the PEX tubes to the floor!”  This basic premise is true, but the purpose of our heat transfer plates goes beyond that.  Radiantmax heat transfer plates are designed to transfer the maximum amount of heat to the greatest amount of floor area with the greatest possible efficiency.

Radiantmax Heat Transfer Plates

Radiantmax Heat Transfer Plates

How do we do that?  Here’s some information worth knowing.

Our heat transfer plates are made with .020” thick type 3003 aluminum.  Using thinner aluminum would certainly cost less, but this also reduces the efficiency of the heat transfer process.

The channels formed in our plates are designed to be in contact with the PEX tube over 75% of it’s surface area.  Other products on the market with more of a “V” groove or straight lazy “U” groove may be in contact with only 25% of the PEX tube, making their ability to transfer heat to the floor much less efficient.

The channels formed in our plates are also designed to hold the PEX tubing up to the surface directly above it actually forcing it to be in direct contact with it – exactly the place we want the heat to go (up through the floor).

Our plates are pressed into shape in such a way that they will hold their shape over time.  Applying or drawing away heat too quickly from aluminum during the forming process can effect it’s ability to hold it’s shape over time.   Remember that the plate is trying to transfer heat from the PEX tube and send it up through the floor.  Over time, as a plate formed this way experiences expansion and contraction, it may lose it’s shape and make less contact with the PEX tubing, again making it less efficient.

Thermal conductivity is a complicated concept to explain.  Among the key factors are surface area, mass of the material, and the amount of heat we are looking to dissipate.  All of this, of course, effects not only the amount of heat that can be transferred but also the rate at which it can be transferred.  A thin piece of aluminum has less capacity to transfer heat than a thicker piece.  At the same time, it is not practical or efficient to have too much thickness in the plate as well.  Our plates are designed to provide the optimal balance between heat transfer efficiency, practical application, and ease of use.

So is it enough to say that our heat transfer plates are better because they are thicker and made better?  No, there is still more to it.  Let’s talk a little more about efficiency as it relates to heating – including radiant heating.

People don’t just want to feel comfortable and warm from their heating system.  They want to be comfortable and warm for the least amount of operational effort and cost. People buy high efficiency gas boilers and hot water heaters because they turn more gas into heat and that means they save money by wasting less energy.  The same concept is true when you talk about efficiency of heat transfer plates.  A difference of, say, 10% in ability of a heat transfer plate to transmit heat into the floor above it means that there needs to be 10% more heat from the source available to make up the difference.  Sure you can get your floors warm, but how high did you have to turn the heat source up to achieve that level of comfort?

This speaks directly to the concept of spacing of the heat transfer plates.  Eagle Mountain recommends end-to-end spacing of ½” apart. Other systems allow spacing as much as 6” apart.  This could reduce the effective amount of surface area in contact with a heat transfer plate by as much as 25% all by itself.  This is really asking the heat source to work harder to heat the floor.   Stop and think.  If you are using a plate that is anywhere from 10-20% less efficient because of the way it is made and now are spacing it in a way that reduces the efficiency of the entire radiant system by 25%, then how can you expect to make up for that inefficiency?  There isn’t much choice but to provide more heat at a higher temperature for a longer time.  That will cost you money.

Let’s talk about the effect of high heat temperatures on a wood floor.  Did you know that most hardwood floor manufacturers recommend the floor surface to be no higher than 85 degrees (F)?  An inefficient radiant system could require a boiler temperature of between 160 and 180 degrees to generate enough heat transfer through the floor to the living area (where the heat is needed).  This could result in areas of the floor being exposed to too much heat.  This could affect appearance, adhesion ability of glue in the sub floor and joists, and resulting noise in the floor.  If the floor material is something other than wood (tile, thin carpet), the problems could be even more apparent.

Let’s revisit our initial design premise: Radiantmax heat transfer plates are designed to transfer the maximum amount of heat to the greatest amount of floor area with the greatest possible efficiency.

When evaluating a radiant heating system, we suggest that in addition to evaluating the components, you evaluate the complete system. Will the system provide the maximum amount of comfort to the entire living area with the greatest possible efficiency?  Saving money on lower cost components during installation may cost you more in the long run. Keep focused on what you are trying to achieve with your project and buy the system that gives you the best performance for a reasonable investment.

Radiantmax radiant heating systems are designed to deliver the right amount of heat to the right place with the maximum amount of efficiency.  You’re not buying just the plate.  You’re buying a proven system.

Hydronic Control Panels – What You Should Expect to Find.

Monday, January 9th, 2012

Hydronic Control Panels
What should you expect to find in a control panel?

WHAT IS THE VALUE OF A HYDRONIC CONTROL PANEL?

The control panel is the heart of the hydronic system. It should include all components that are not only compatible with the rest of the equipment connected to the HVAC system but allow the system to provide optimal performance. It should be easy to install. It should include all mechanical and electrical connection points. It must provide equipment that protects both the system and the home in case of equipment malfunctions. It should provide for ease of serviceability during routine and emergency maintenance. As it is perhaps the most visible system component in a customer installation, it should also provide a clean and professional appearance.

When considering a hydronic control panel design, the following should be taken into consideration:

  • Functionality
  • Installation
  • Durability and Appearance
  • Serviceability

FUNCTIONALITY

By definition the control panel is the main system component where the hydronic system should be controlled or operated from. This means that it should include as many of the system control elements as possible as well as be the electrical center for all equipment attached to the hydronic system.
Standard elements that should be included in a control panel design include: feed water regulator and backflow preventer, expansion tank, air eliminator, zone valves, circulating pumps, pressure gauge, temperature measurement for supply and return with delta, system controls, master power switch, electrical wiring connection points, and fill and flush connections.

Visio-showroom panel labeled.vsd

Basic Elements of a Hydronic Control Panel

Other items that can be included:

  • Fittings for a variety of piping types
  • Strainer or Dirt Separator
  • 3-way or variable speed mixing
  • DHW Piping and controls
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Glycol Feeders

Integrated Control Options

  • Variable Speed Mixing
  • Setpoint Controls
  • Ice and Snow Melting
  • Ecô Energy Management System

Wiring Connection Terminations for:

  • All thermostats and sensors
  • Circulation pumps
  • Actuators
  • All heat pumps, boilers, air handlers, and any other active equipment being controlled in the HVAC system.

INSTALLATION

As all control panels are essentially customized to a specific installation, the contractor essentially has two choices:

Option 1 – Build it on-site:

  • Pre-design or design-on-the-fly
  • Specify and obtain components
  • Work in potentially unconditioned and uncontrolled environment
  • Incur travel & labor costs
  • Test system on site
  • Make any revisions to panel at on-site labor costs plus travel

There are a lot of variables in this equation. Even with experienced personnel, costs can be unpredictable and difficult to control.

Option 2 – Have it designed and fabricated off-site for easy and quick installation:

Using Eagle Mountain/Hydronic Systems this provides the following advantages:

  • Full Control panel is designed and reviewed ahead of time for physical layout, components, connectivity, wiring layout, and panel size – before any fabrication begins.
  • Panel is fabricated in a controlled environment at factory labor rates.
  • All electrical control connection points are brought to a single electrical box mounted on the panel.
  • Panel is tested before leaving the factory.
  • The only labor required on the job site is for mounting the panel and making the physical connections to the rest of the system.
  • Cost of the panel is known up-front. Installation costs are not only predictable and more easily controlled, they are also greatly reduced.

DURABILITY AND APPEARANCE

Panel Material
It is common to find control panels mounted on materials ranging from plywood to steel sheets. While these materials are readily available and may be relatively inexpensive, they are not ideal for hydronic systems. By their nature, hydronic systems involve water. Components can collect moisture on external surfaces that eventually can migrate to other components in the system. This moisture will eventually weaken and warp wood materials potentially compromising the structural integrity of the control panel. Similarly, steel sheets may be subject to corrosion that may also bring similar risks to the structural integrity of the overall control panel.

An ideal material for control panels is a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) board. This material provides adequate strength and stiffness to accommodate all the control panel components, is completely impervious to the effects of moisture, and also provides a professional appearance in the home or facility where the control panel is mounted.

Panel Mounting
Any prefabricated panel should come with a mounting system that allows for simple and quick wall-mounting by one or two people (depending on the size of the panel). Connection to the rest of the system should be simple and easily accomplished once the board is mounted. Remember, one of the primary purposes of the prefabricated hydronic control panel is to reduce on-site labor.

Copper and Brass Handling
During fabrication, the copper and brass components should not be touched by hand due to the salts on the skin, or exposed to environments that can produce oxidation. Fabrication should be done using gloves designed for handling copper and brass that eliminate the salts transfer.

Cleaning
The piping and fittings need to be cleaned of the flux material used during the assembly to prohibit accelerated corrosion of the copper. The copper may also have surface oxidation from the assembly process as well as salts from shipping and/or handling of the copper by hand. These salts will accelerate the oxidation producing discoloration and eventually corrosion of the copper and brass components in the system. The panel should be thoroughly cleaned and polished to prevent any corrosion of the components.

Following installation, the control panel is perhaps the most visible component to any hydronic-based HVAC system. In addition to the serviceability issues discussed above, the value of a clean and well organized control panel that will stand the test of time should serve any contractor well as a showpiece for the type of installation and work that potential customers can expect from them.

SERVICEABILITY

Next to the ease of installation, the most significant criteria in control panel design have to do with serviceability. As the system is mechanical in nature, over time there is a significant likelihood that maintenance of some sort will be required. Chances are, if a service call is required, the first place a technician will need to go is the control panel. A well-designed control panel allows for easy access to all of the system controls in a consistent manner and provides appropriate access to all components. This design should include removable actuators and sufficient valves and drains to isolate any component for service or easy replacement.

Another benefit inherent with pre-fabricated control panels is that the contractor will have access to a drawing of the control panel available to them to review in the event of a service call. Having this information available will help technicians with remote trouble-shooting and save money in service calls benefitting both the business and their customers.

SUMMARY

Together, all of the elements discussed above add up to the value that the hydronic control panel can bring to your business. Each of these elements is important to both the contractor and the end-user. The decisions made around the design and installation of the hydronic control panel can have both immediate and long-term impact to the system functionality as well as to the relationship between the contractor and the system owner. Care should be taken to consider future maintenance as well as potential changes to the system. Weight should be given to the desired optimal performance of the system when determining system components and layout. All electrical wiring and controls need to be taken into account when designing and evaluating control panel solutions. Eagle Mountain’s hydronic control panels provide a high-value solution to any hydronic-based HVAC system.

Can you use Geothermal with Baseboard Radiant Heating?

Tuesday, August 31st, 2010
Boug Mossbrook

Doug Mossbrook

Yes, it’s technically possible, but the answer is NO.

We had a customer write in saying “At my IGSHPA training the instructor told us that using geothermal with baseboard radiant absolutely could be done -because the plumbers used to always oversize the baseboard runs anyway -maxing them out per room -so the lower 120 degree water temp would work.  I would like to know what the engineers up your way say about this.”

The short answer is no, don’t use geothermal with baseboard heating or radiators.

The longer answer is yes, but with a few caveats that will be explained here.  Baseboard heaters use convection heating to heat a room. There are typically fins inside the heater called elements. These elements have a set resistance, which transfers heat energy from the hot water and dissipates it in the form of heat to the surrounding air.

Because the warm air is lighter than the cooler air, it rises out of the top of the heater and the cooler air closer to the floor is drawn in from the bottom to replace the displaced warm air. This is convection.  This cycle continues until the air surrounding your control center or thermostat reaches the specified temperature.

Convection

Convection

The typical operating temperature of water in a baseboard heating system is roughly 160 – 180 degrees fahrenheit.  This high temperature is critical to be as efficient as possible.

Convection does not work with low temperature water from a geothermal heat pump.

And as we all know, a geothermal system is a low temperature heat source, with a maximum output temperature of roughly 115 degrees.  With radiant floor heating or forced air, this water temperature is perfect to heat a room, and it helps keep the geo system as efficient as possible.

115 degree water is not hot enough to adequately dissipate heat for baseboard hydronic systems.  It will dissipate some heat through the fins simply because the water in the pipes is warmer than the room; however, to heat a room to 70 degrees will take a long time, require a lot of energy, and additional surface area (more radiators).

The technical answer whether or not baseboard radiant works with geothermal is yes; however the cost of additional radiators, piping, and reduced efficiency make the correct answer no.  Baseboard radiant is most efficient when incorporated with a boiler system.  A boiler radiant heating system is capable of much higher output temperatures than a geothermal system.

Hydronic Snow Melt Systems: Say Goodbye to Shovels

Tuesday, June 8th, 2010
Source: Birdman

Source: Birdman

Will your hydronic snow melt system be ready when winter comes and the snow starts to fall? There is an alternative to constant shoveling and de-icing.

Some homeowners and businesses are keeping their concrete driveways and other exterior walkways maintenance-free by installing ice and snow melt systems.

Not only do these in-slab hydronic snowmelt systems eliminate plowing, backbreaking shoveling, and icy spills, they prevent potential damage to the concrete caused by snow-removal equipment and corrosive de-icers.

How Snow Melt Systems Work


The heat element is either hydronic tubing or electric wires. This heat element is embedded in concrete to transfer its heat energy to the slab.

(more…)

How to select a heat source for your radiant heating system

Monday, March 29th, 2010
Jason Murphy

Jason Murphy

Selecting a heat source for your radiant heating system is easy for large projects since efficient boilers and hydronic geothermal heat pumps offer exceptional value and performance.

Problems arise when you try to select a heat source for small radiant systems of less than 1,000 square feet.

This is a problem for our customers since many radiant heating systems are indeed small. Many customers are adding radiant heating systems to new rooms, barns, and garages.

Radiant Heat Source Options

You have the following options for radiant heat sources:

  • Boiler (Electric/Gas/LP)
  • Tankless Hot Water Heater
  • Traditional Water Heater (Electric/Gas/LP)

On-demand hot water heaters, or instant hot water heaters, are typically the first choice since they are small and most users consider these devices to be cost effective. Water heaters are often considered as an option to reduce costs. Each option has important considerations before you decide on a heat source for a radiant system.

Instant Hot Water for Radiant Systems

If you are planning to use an instant hot water heater, you need to make sure the heat loss of the radiant zone exceeds the minimum output of the water heater. For example, if your water heater modulates down to 15,000 BTUH but the 300 SF radiant zone only needs 5,000 BTUH on the coldest day, your water heater will short cycle and overheat. The solution for a small radiant zone would be to use a buffer tank or to use a traditional tank style water heater.

Water Heaters for Radiant Systems

Tank style water heaters for radiant heating systems present a much different problem. You need to make sure the water heater recovery time is sufficient to satisfy the radiant zone’s heat loss on the coldest day. Water heaters are designed to make cold water hot, and radiant systems operate with a 20 degree temperature differential, which sends warm water back to the tank.  When incoming water is warm, a water heater cannot transfer heat in the needed amount of time or at the required flow rate.

Water heater recovery is measured in gallons per hour. Flow rates for a radiant system can be calculated at 1 gallon per minute for each 10,000 BTUH of heat loss. Due to recovery time, water heaters will work only with very small radiant systems. Larger radiant systems can use water heaters but it is essential to correctly calculate heat loss and select equipment based on recovery time for a 20 degree temperature differential.

Boilers for Radiant Systems

Boilers are an efficient way to make warm water hot. However, when used with a small radiant systems, the heat produced by a boiler may greatly exceeded the radiant zone requirements. Boilers such as the Argo Electric Boiler work great for small radiant systems as you can configure the 2nd heating element with a delay based on the heat loss, thus reducing risks of short cycling. Another solution to this problem is to use a deactivated water heater as a buffer tank.

There are many reasons to use a boiler for small radiant systems. Many boilers can simultaneously heat water for both radiant systems and domestic hot water. Additionally, a boiler provides the opportunity for future expansion of your radiant system.

Important Considerations

When selecting a heat source for a small radiant system, it’s important to consider the heat loss of the radiant zone, the flow rate required to satisfy the heat loss, and the correct equipment needed to make sure your system meets both current and future requirements.

If you require any assistance please contact Eagle Mountain at 1-800-572-7831 or contact us.